تم تحديث مكتبة الموقع واضافة مجموعة قيمة من الكتب والمراجع العلمية في علوم الطب والتمريض وكذلك تم اضافة مجموعة رائعة من الفديوهات التعليمية في علم الطب والتمريض يرجي الاستفادة منها وترك تعليقاتكم من أجل تواصل خدمتنا لكم
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We introduce to yours some Basic Information about History Of Nursing Profession
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death.
Nurses work in a large variety of specialties where they work independently and as part of a team to assess, plan, implement and evaluate care. Nursing Science is a field of knowledge based on the contributions of nursing scientist through peer reviewed scholarly journals and evidenced-based practice
Nursing as a profession
The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. In almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the profession is regulated at national or state level.
The aim of the nursing community worldwide is for its professionals to ensure quality care for all, while maintaining their credentials, code of ethics, standards, and competencies, and continuing their education. There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse, which vary greatly worldwide, but all involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice and training in clinical skills.
Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in a holistic manner based on the individual's physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs. The profession combines physical science, social science, nursing theory, and technology in caring for those individuals.
In order to work in the nursing profession, all nurses hold one or more credentials depending on their scope of practice and education. A Licensed practical nurse (LPN) (also referred to as a Licensed vocational nurse, registered practical nurse, Enrolled nurse, and State enrolled nurse) works independently or with a Registered nurse. The most significant differentiation between an LPN and RN is found in the requirements for entry to practice, which determines entitlement for their scope of practice, for example in Canada an RN requires a bachelor’s degree and a LPN requires a 2 year diploma. A Registered nurse (RN) provides scientific, psychological, and technological knowledge in the care of patients and families in many health care settings. Registered nurses may also earn additional credentials or degrees enabling them to work under different titles (Nurse Practitioner, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Registered Nurse First Assistant, etc.).
Nurses may follow their personal and professional interests by working with any group of people, in any setting, at any time. Some nurses follow the traditional role of working in a hospital setting
List of nursing specialties
In the modern world, there are a large number of specialties within nursing. Professional organizations or certifying boards issue voluntary certification in many of these specialties.
Nursing practice is the actual provision of nursing care. In providing care, nurses implement the nursing care plan using the nursing process. This is based around a specific nursing theory which is selected based on the care setting and population served. In providing nursing care, the nurse uses both nursing theory and best practice derived from nursing research.
Although nursing practice varies both through its various specialities and countries, these nursing organizations offer the following definitions:
Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing i includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles.
— International Council of Nurses
The use of clinical judgment in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintains, or recovers health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until death."
—Royal College of Nursing UK
Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses; and advocacy in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations.
—American Nurses Association
The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.
—Virginia Avenel Henderson
Nursing theory and process
In general terms, the nursing process is the method used to assess and diagnose needs, plan outcomes and interventions, implement interventions, and evaluate the outcomes of the care provided. Like other disciplines, the profession has developed different theories derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals. Currently, two paradigms exist in nursing, the totality paradigm and the simultaneity paradigm
Nurses practice in a wide range of settings, from hospitals to visiting people in their homes and caring for them in schools to research in pharmaceutical companies. Nurses work in occupational health settings (also called industrial health settings), free-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-led clinics, long-term care facilities and camps. They also work on cruise ships and in military service. Nurses act as advisers and consultants to the health care and insurance industries. Many nurses also work in the health advocacy and patient advocacy fields at companies such as Health Advocate, Inc. helping in a variety of clinical and administrative issues.
Some are attorneys and others work with attorneys as legal nurse consultants, reviewing patient records to assure that adequate care was provided and testifying in court. Nurses can work on a temporary basis, which involves doing shifts without a contact in a variety of settings, sometimes known as per diem nursing, agency nursing or travel nursing. Nurses work as researchers in laboratories, universities, and research institutions.
Internationally, there is a serious shortage of nurses. One reason for this shortage is due to the work environment in which nurses practice. In a recent review of the empirical human factors and ergonomic literature specific to nursing performance, nurses were found to work in generally poor environmental conditions. DeLucia, Ott, & Palmieri (2009) concluded, "The profession of nursing as a whole is overloaded because there is a nursing shortage. Individual nurses are overloaded. They are overloaded by the number of patients they oversee. They are overloaded by the number of tasks they perform. They work under cognitive overload, engaging in multitasking and encountering frequent interruptions. They work under perceptual overload due to medical devices that do not meet perceptual requirements (Morrow et al., 2005), insufficient lighting, illegible handwriting, and poor labeling designs. They work under physical overload due to long work hours and patient handling demands which leads to a high incidence of MSDs. In short, the nursing work system often exceeds the limits and capabilities of human performance. HF/E research should be conducted to determine how these overloads can be reduced and how the limits and capabilities of performance can be accommodated. Ironically, the literature shows that there are studies to determine whether nurses can effectively perform tasks ordinarily performed by physicians. Results indicate that nurses can perform such tasks effectively. Nevertheless, already overloaded nurses should not be given more tasks to perform. When reducing the overload, it should be kept in mind that under loads also can be detrimental to performance (Mackworth, 1948). Both overloads and under loads are important to consider for improving performance.
Nursing ethics is the discipline of evaluating the merits, risks, and social concerns of activities in the field of nursing. There are many defined codes of ethics for nurses.
Human rights and nursing practice
Ethics has been an integral part of nursing practice from the earliest foundations of modern nursing in the late nineteenth century. This has always entailed a respect for human rights of the persons in their care. However, early attempts to define ethics in nursing were focused more on the virtues of the nurses themselves, rather than looking at how the rights of the patient or client might be promoted in particular. In the modern era, the ethics of nursing has shifted more toward the promotion of these rights and the duties of the nurse (McHale & Gallagher 2003).
The importance of human rights in nursing was made explicit in a statement adopted by the International Council of Nurses in 1983.
Although historically much of nursing ethics has been derived from medical ethics, there are some factors that differentiate it from this. The key difference is that paternalism, which is often a key feature in theories of medical ethics, is generally not compatible with nursing ethics (Rumbold 1999). This is because nursing theory seeks a collaborative relationship with the person in their care. It therefore emphasises autonomy of the person being nursed over paternalistic practice where the health professional seeks to do what they believe to be in the person's or society's best interests. Codes of conduct for nurses tend to be written in the ethical framework of deontology and are therefore based on the rights of the patient and the duties of the nurse rather than on utilitarian concerns of the consequences justifying the action.
Common themes in nursing ethics
Increasingly, the nurse's role is one of advocate for the interests of the people in their care. In terms of ethical theory, this means having a respect for the autonomy of the person to make decisions about their own treatment and be provided with information available in order to do this. So the principle of informed consent, where a person understands fully the implications of having or refusing a treatment, is one which is held in the nurse's mind when suggesting treatment options. (Rumbold 1999) This principle is not absolute as people are sometimes unable to make choices about their own treatment due to being incapacitated or having a mental illness that affects their judgment. This means that the nurse has to weigh their duty of care against the autonomy of the person in care.
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